A Demonstration And Comparison Of Two Types Of Inference-based Memory Errors
Journal Of Experimental Psychology-learning Memory And Cognition
Participants viewed slides depicting ordinary routines (e.g., going grocery shopping) and later received a recognition test. In Experiment 1, there was higher recognition confidence to high-schema-relevant than to low-schema-relevant items. In Experiment 2, participants viewed slide sequences that sometimes contained a cause (e.g., woman taking orange from bottom of pile) but not an effect scene (oranges on floor), or an effect but not a cause scene. Participants mistook new cause scenes as old when they viewed the effect; false alarms to cause scenes and high-schema-relevant items increased with retention interval. Experiment 3 showed that the backward inference effect was accompanied by false explicit recollection, whereas false alarms to schema-high foils were based on familiarity. This suggests that the 2 types of inferential errors are produced by different underlying mechanisms.
Hannigan, Sl, and Mark Tippens Reinitz. 2001. "A demonstration and comparison of two types of inference-based memory errors." Journal Of Experimental Psychology-learning Memory And Cognition 27(4): 931-940.