Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
An experimental investigation of orchestral crotale vibrational modes in water is presented, along with a qualitative virtual mass model describing the observed effects. Changes in frequency, overtone ratio, and mode splitting as a function of water depth are reported for a C6 crotale using electronic speckle-pattern interferometry. These data are related to perceived changes in pitch and timbre, along with the creation of audible beats at particular water depths. It is also shown that the suspension method used by musicians when dipping crotales into water leads to the creation of additional acoustically significant modes that are not excited when the crotales are mounted in the standard manner.
Worland, Randy. 2012. "Musical acoustics of orchestral water crotales." Journal Of The Acoustical Society Of America 131(1): 935-944.