Elementary School Journal
In this study we examined the responses of 16 low-achieving students to reform-based mathematics instruction in 5 elementary classrooms for 1 year. We used qualitative methods at 2 schools to identify the needs of low achievers in these classrooms, which were using an innovative curriculum. Through classroom observations and interviews with teachers, we studied the involvement of low achievers in whole-class discussions and pair work. Results suggested that both the organization and task demands of the reform classrooms presented verbal and social challenges to low achievers that need to be addressed if these students are to benefit from reform-based mathematics instruction.
Baxter, Juliet A, John Woodward, and Deborah Olson. "Effects of Reform-Based Mathematics Instruction on Low Achievers in Five Third-Grade Classrooms." Elementary School Journal. 101.5 (2001): 529-47. Print.