On-road, In-use Gaseous Emission Measurements By Remote Sensing Of School Buses Equipped With Diesel Oxidation Catalysts And Diesel Particulate Filters
Journal Of The Air & Waste Management Association (air & Waste Management Association)
A remote sensing device was used to obtain on-road and in-use gaseous emission measurements from three fleets of schools buses at two locations in Washington State. This paper reports each fleet's carbon moNOxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) mean data. The fleets represent current emission retrofit technologies, such as diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts, and a control fleet. This study shows that CO and HC emissions decrease with the use of either retrofit technology when compared with control buses of the same initial emission standards. The CO and HC emission reductions are consistent with published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency verified values. The total oxides of nitrogen (NOx), NO, and the NO2/NOx ratio all increase with each retrofit technology when compared with control buses. As was expected, the diesel particulate filters emitted significantly higher levels of NO2 than the control fleet because of the intentional conversion of NO to NO2 by these systems. Most prior research suggests that NOx emissions are unaffected by the retrofits; however, these previous studies have not included measurements from retrofit devices on-road and after nearly 5 yr of use. Two 2006 model-year buses were also measured. These vehicles did not have retrofit devices but were built to more stringent new engine standards. Reductions in HCs and NOx were observed for these 2006 vehicles in comparison to other non-retrofit earlier model-year vehicles.
Burgard, Daniel A., and Melissa N. Provinsal. 2009. "On-Road, In-Use Gaseous Emission Measurements by Remote Sensing of School Buses Equipped with Diesel Oxidation Catalysts and Diesel Particulate Filters." Journal Of The Air & Waste Management Association (air & Waste Management Association) 59(12): 1468-1473.