Kristin Brubaker, a licensed occupational therapist in the University Place School District, proposed the following question to a student research team: “What are the student, therapist, and teacher outcomes of different school-based service delivery models?” Following a review of 22 articles with qualitative and quantitative methods, studies were grouped into three categories of school-based service delivery models: collaborative-consultative, mixed, and direct. Research demonstrated that collaborative-consultative service delivery models provide positive outcomes such as stronger relationships between therapists and teachers, opportunities for therapists to implement and adapt intervention techniques within the classroom, increased effectiveness in teaching strategies, and improved academic skills and participation for students. Research on mixed models found positive outcomes for teachers, including awareness of student impairments as well as visual motor skill development for students. Research on the direct service delivery model, though limited, found benefits in developing handwriting skills of students, as well as other fine, gross, and visual motor skills. The student researchers concluded that a collaborative-consultative service delivery model elicits the most positive outcomes for teachers, therapists, and students. The student researchers also acknowledge positive outcomes for students using a direct model, and both students and teachers using a mixed design. Recommendations for future research includes gathering more evidence to determine the most effective service delivery model and identifying how to best foster collaboration between therapists and teachers to optimize positive outcomes for students.

Publication Place

Tacoma, Washington


University of Puget Sound

Project Chairperson

Sheryl Zylstra, DOT, OTR/L, BCP

Publication Date



Capstone Project





Degree Program

Occupational Therapy

Degree Level

Master of Science


Occupational Therapy


University of Puget Sound