Work Type



Fall 2017

Faculty Advisor

Julia Looper PhD, PT; Lynette Chandler PhD, PT




Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term (5.5-year) predictive validity of the Movement Assessment for Children (MAC).

Background: Many pediatric examinations of motor development attempt to detect developmental delays in infancy so that early intervention may be implemented. Some tests have shown strong predictive validity within the first 12 months of development, but no test has illustrated long-term (>5 years) predictive power. The Movement Assessment for Children has demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability, consistent test-retest scores, strong construct validity and responsiveness to change, but the predictive validity remains unknown.

Methods: Eight typically developing children were recruited for this study. All had participated in a previous study that assessed developmental milestones, via the MAC, at 12 months of age. Five years later, the children were tested at 6.5 years of age utilizing the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) to assess their current motor developmental level. Z-scores for the MAC and BOT-2 were calculated in order to compare the fine and gross motor subsections of each examination and determine if any correlations prevailed. A Spearman rank correlation was performed with an alpha of .05.

Results: When comparing participants’ MAC scores at 12 months to their BOT-2 scores at 6.5 years, no significant correlations existed in any of the fine or gross motor subsections.

Conclusion: The MAC is unable to predict motor function in typically developing children at a 5.5 year follow up. It is possible the MAC may successfully predict motor development on a shorter timeline (years) or in non-typically developing children, but more research is necessary.

  1. Chandler LS, Terhorst L, Rogers JC, Holm MB. Movement Assessment of Children (MAC): validity, reliability, stability and sensitivity to change in typically developing children. Child: Care, Health and Development. Published May 15, 2016.
  2. Chandler LS, Andrews MS, Swanson M. Movement Assessment of Children. 2ndEd. Tacoma, WA. 2012.
  3. Deitz JC, Kartin D, Kopp K. Review of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2007;27(4):87-102.


University of Puget Sound